Standard Practice for Optimization, Sample Handling, Calibration, and Validation of X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Methods for Elemental Analysis of Petroleum Products and Lubricants
3.1 Accurate elemental analyses of samples of petroleum and petroleum products are required for the determination of chemical properties, which are in turn used to establish compliance with commercial and regulatory specifications.
1.1 This practice covers information relating to sampling, calibration and validation of X-ray fluorescence instruments for elemental analysis, including all kinds of wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) and energy dispersive (EDXRF) techniques. This practice includes sampling issues such as the selection of storage vessels, transportation, and sub-sampling. Treatment, assembly, and handling of technique-specific sample holders and cups are also included. Technique-specific requirements during analytical measurement and validation of measurement for the determination of trace elements in samples of petroleum and petroleum products are described. For sample mixing, refer to Practice D5854. Petroleum products covered in this practice are considered to be a single phase and exhibit Newtonian characteristics at the point of sampling.
1.2 Applicable Test Methods—This practice is applicable to the XRF methods under the jurisdiction of ASTM Subcommittee D02.03 on Elemental Analysis, and those under the jurisdiction of the Energy Institute’s Test Method Standardization Committee (Table 1). Some of these methods are technically equivalent though they may differ in details (Table 2).
Sulfur in Petroleum Products
Additive Elements in Lubricating Oils and Additives
Lead in Gasoline
Sulfur in Gasoline
Additive Elements in Lube Oils and Additives
Vanadium and Nickel
Sulfur in Automotive Fuels
Chlorine and Bromine
Sulfur in Ethanol as Blending Agent
Si, Cr, Ni, Fe, and Cu in Used Greases
Several Metals in Burner Fuels Derived from Waste Mineral Oils
Sulfur in Gasoline and Diesel
Silicon in Gasoline and Naphtha
Additive Elements in Lubricating Oils
Low Sulfur in Automotive Fuels
Sulfur by WD-XRF
DIN 51400T6; JIS K3541
Additive Elements by WE-XRF
Sulfur by ED-XRF
1.3 Applicable Fluids—This practice is applicable to petroleum and petroleum products with vapor pressures at sampling and storage temperatures less than or equal to 101 kPa (14.7 psi). Use Practice D4057 or IP 475 to sample these materials. Refer to Practice D5842 when sampling materials that also require Reid vapor pressure (RVP) determination.
1.4 Non-applicable Fluids—Petroleum products whose vapor pressure at sampling and sample storage conditions are above 101 kPa (14.7 psi) and liquefied gases (that is, LNG, LPG, etc.) are not covered by this practice.
1.5 Sampling Methods—The physical sampling and methods of sampling from a primary source are not covered by this guide. It is assumed that samples covered by this practice are a representative sample of the primary source liquid. Refer to Practice D4057 or IP 475 for detailed sampling procedures.
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Formato físico y digital
Nota: Precios sin IVA ni gastos de envío
Descuentos no acumulables
Añadir a la cesta