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ASTM D4105/D4105M-15e1

ASTM D4105/D4105M-15e1

Standard Test Method for (Analytical Procedure) for Determining Transmissivity and Storage Coefficient of Nonleaky Confined Aquifers by the Modified Theis Nonequilibrium Method

2020-06-17 /Historical
Superseeded by:
Significance and Use:

5.1 Assumptions: 

5.1.1 Well discharges at a constant rate, Q.

5.1.2 Well is of infinitesimal diameter and fully penetrates the aquifer, that is, the well is open to the full thickness of the aquifer.

5.1.3 The nonleaky aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic, and areally extensive. A nonleaky aquifer receives insignificant contribution of water from confining beds.

5.1.4 Discharge from the well is derived exclusively from storage in the aquifer.

5.1.5 The geometry of the assumed aquifer and well conditions are shown in Fig. 1.

Sy   =   the specific yield.

For fully penetrating observation wells, the effects of delayed yield are negligible at the distance, r, in Eq 11 after one tenth of the time given in the Eq 12.

Note 2: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.

Note 3: The injection of water into an aquifer may be regulated or require regulatory approvals. Withdrawal of contaminated waters may require that the removed water be properly treated prior to discharge.


1.1 This test method covers an analytical procedure for determining transmissivity and storage coefficient of a nonleaky confined aquifer under conditions of radial flow to a fully penetrating well of constant flux. This test method is a shortcut procedure used to apply the Theis nonequilibrium method. The Theis method is described in Test Method D4106.

1.2 This test method, along with others, is used in conjunction with the field procedure given in Test Method D4050.

1.3 Limitations—The limitations of this test method are primarily related to the correspondence between the field situation and the simplifying assumptions of this test method (see 5.1). Furthermore, application is valid only for values of u less than 0.01 (u is defined in Eq 2, in 8.6).

1.4 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026.

1.4.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.

1.5 Units—The values stated in either SI Units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

aquifer tests; aquifers; confined aquifers; control wells; groundwater; hydraulic properties; observation wells; storage coefficient; transmissivity; unconfined aquifers;
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