Standard Practice for Quantitative Accelerated Laboratory Evaluation of Extraction Solutions Containing Ions Leached from Thermal Insulation on Aqueous Corrosion of Metals
5.1 Results from this accelerated corrosion test shall not be considered as an indicator of the useful life of the metal equipment. Many factors need consideration for applicability to specific circumstances. Refer to Guide C1696 and Practice G31 for additional information.
5.2 Corrosion associated with insulation is an important concern for insulation manufacturers, specification writers, designers, contractors, users and operators of the equipment. Some material specifications contain test methods (or reference test methods contained in other material specifications), for use in evaluating the insulation with regard to the corrosion of steel, copper, and aluminum. In some cases these tests are not applicable or effective and have not been evaluated for precision and bias.
5.3 A properly selected, installed, and maintained insulation system will reduce the corrosion that often occurs on an un-insulated structure. However, when the protective weather-resistant covering of an insulation system fails, the conditions for the aqueous environment necessary for corrosion under insulation (CUI) often develop. It is possible the insulation contains, collects, or concentrates corrosive agents, or a combination thereof, often found in industrial and coastal environments. If water is not present, these electrolytes cannot migrate to the metal surface. The electrochemical reaction resulting in the aqueous corrosion of metal surfaces cannot take place in the absence of water and electrolytes. Additional environmental factors contributing to increased corrosion rates are oxygen, and elevated-temperature (near boiling point).
5.4 Chlorides and other corrosive ions are common to many environments. The primary corrosion preventative is to protect insulation and metal from contamination and moisture. Insulation covers, jackets, and metal coating of various kinds are often used to prevent water infiltration and contact with the metal.
5.5 This procedure can be used to evaluate all types of thermal insulation and fireproofing materials (industrial, commercial, residential, cryogenic, fire-resistive, insulating cement) manufactured using inorganic or organic materials, faced or unfaced, for which a filtered extraction solution can be obtained.
5.6 This procedure can be used with all metal types for which a coupon can be prepared such as mild steel, stainless steel, copper, or aluminum. Other metals (copper, aluminum) will need different times, reference solutions and cleaning practices. It shall not be interpreted that the steel procedures work for everything. When procedures are developed for other metals they will be balloted for inclusion in the document.
5.7 This procedure can also be applicable to insulation accessories including jacketing, covers, adhesives, cements, and binders associated with insulation and insulation products.
5.8 Heat treatment of the insulation (as recommended by the manufacturer up to the maximum potential exposure temperature) can be used to simulate possible conditions of use.
5.9 Adhesives can be tested by first drying followed by water extraction or by applying a known quantity of the test adhesive to a test piece of insulation and then extracting.
5.10 Insulating cements can be tested by casting a slab, drying, and extracting or by using the uncured insulating cement powder for extraction.
5.11 Reference tests prepared with various concentrations of solutions that are conducive to the corrosion of the tested metal serve as comparative criteria. Solutions containing chloride, sodium hydroxide, various acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, and citric acid), as well as “blank” tests using only de-ionized water and tap water are used.
5.12 Research can be done on insulation that has been specially formulated to inhibit corrosion in the presence of corrosive ions through modifications in basic composition or incorporation of certain chemical additives. Corrosive ions can also be added to the insulation extraction solutions to determine the effectiveness of any inhibitors present.
5.13 Protective surface treatments and coatings of different types and thickness can be applied to the metal coupons and compared using various corrosive liquids.
5.14 Several sets of tests are recommended because of the number of factors that affect corrosion. An average of the tests and the standard deviation between the test results are used on the data. Much of the corrosion literature recommends a minimum of three specimens for every test. Consult Guide G16 for additional statistical methods to apply to the corrosion data.
1.1 This practice covers procedures for a quantitative accelerated laboratory evaluation of the influence of extraction solutions containing ions leached from thermal insulation on the aqueous corrosion of metals. The primary intent of the practice is for use with thermal insulation and associated materials that contribute to, or alternatively inhibit, the aqueous corrosion of different types and grades of metals due to soluble ions that are leached by water from within the insulation. The quantitative evaluation criteria are Mass Loss Corrosion Rate (MLCR) expressed in mils per year determined from the weight loss due to corrosion of exposed metal coupons after they are cleaned.
1.2 This practice cannot cover all possible field conditions that contribute to aqueous corrosion. The intent is to provide an accelerated means to obtain a non-subjective numeric value for judging the potential contribution to the corrosion of metals that can come from ions contained in thermal insulation materials or other experimental solutions. The calculated numeric value is the mass loss corrosion rate. This calculation is based on general corrosion spread equally over the test duration and the exposed area of the experimental cells created for the test. Corrosion found in field situations and this accelerated test also involves pitting and edge effects and the rate changes over time.
1.3 The insulation extraction solutions prepared for use in the test can be altered by the addition of corrosive ions to the solutions to simulate contamination from an external source. Ions expected to provide corrosion inhibition can be added to investigate their inhibitory effect.
1.4 Prepared laboratory ionic solutions are used as reference solutions and controls, to provide a means of calibration and comparison.2
1.5 Other liquids can be tested for their potential corrosiveness including cooling tower water, boiler feed, and chemical stocks. Added chemical inhibitors or protective coatings applied to the metal can also be evaluated using the general guidelines of the practice.
1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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